Graminae & Palmae family characteristics and example

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Graminae & Palmae family characteristics and example


Plantsusually herbs
Stemcylindrical, fistular (solid at the node, hollow at the internode)
Leavessimple with distinct sheath enclosing the internode, distichous (half alternate), ligulate
Inflorescencespikelet (each spikelet contains special bracts called glumes; the first and the second glumes are empty and the third one is flowering, called lemma), opposite to lemma there is a bracteole called Palea
Flowerbisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous
Androeciumstamen-6 in 2 whorls (3+3), anthers versatile
Gynoeciumcarpel-1, ovary superior, one chambered with one campylotropous ovule in each chamber, stigma-2, feathery
Plants list (Economically Important Plants)
CerealsOryza sativa

Triticum aestivum

Zea mays

Avena sativa

Hordeum vulgare

Parts usedendosperm with the embryo of the grain
Usesstaple cereals


PlantsSaccharum officinarum
Partssweet secretion of stem


PlantsBambusa vulgaris

Dendrocalamus sp.

Usesbuilding material, paper industries


PlantsCymbopogon citratus

Cymbopogon nardus



PlantSecale cereale
Usescultivation for the production of Ergot of rai, the extract ergotine is used as a remedy for uterine hemorrhage after childbirth

Umbelliferae & Solanaceae family characteristics & plants list

Graminae & Palmae family characteristics and example

Palmae (Arecaceae)

Family characteristics
Plantstrees or shrubs, rarely climber
Stemunbranched, erect, cylindrical, covered with leaf scars or persistent leaf stalks; with crown of foliage leaves.
LeavesCompound pinnately sected or palmately sected plicate in the bud.
Inflorescencesimple or compound spadix, subtended by one or more large spathe.
small, unisexual, regular, hypogynous
Perianth (of both male and female)- 6 in number in 2 whorls (3+3), persistent, sepaloid.
Fruitberry or fibrous drupe
Example (Plants list)
PlantCocos nucifera
Parts & Uses
1. Dried endosperm – coconut oil
2. Water (liquid endosperm) – drinking purpose
PlantsBorassus flabellifer

Phoenix sylvestris

Partssugary juice from young shoot tips called ‘Todday’.
Usesthis todday is used for making sugar and local alcoholic drink
PlantsElaeis guineensis
Partsfleshy mesocarp of the fruit
Usespalm oil (used in making soap and edible oil)
PlantMetroxylon sagu
Partsstarch from the pith of the stem
PlantCalamus rotang (climber)
Usesused as canes, making sticks, sits of chairs, basket, etc.

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